Family Pupillidae Turton, 1831

The Pupillidae is a large, cosmopolitan family of minute snails (Schileyko 1998). As used here and in most modern accounts, considerably fewer taxa are included in it; several groups once classified in it are now placed in separate families, including Gastrocoptidae, Truncatellinidae, and Vertiginidae, although this use is still not universal.

Two genera and five species occur in Canada. The genus Pupilla, which is distributed in Eurasia, North America, Australia, and Africa (Schileyko 1998), is widely distributed over Canada, and represented by four species, one of which is introduced. With the revision by Nekola et al. (2015), the species in North American have become better known, although specimens in museums must now be re-identified in light of these new species and better characters to separate all species. The genus Pupoides has a single species in Canada, P. albilabris, which is restricted to Ontario.

Genus Pupilla Leach in Fleming, 1828

  • Pupilla Leach in Fleming 1828: 268; type species by monotypy: Pupa marginata (Draparnaud, 1801) (= Turbo muscorum Linnaeus, 1758).

Etymology. Latin: pupa, a pupa + diminutive suffix, –illa; thus, a litte pupa; feminine.

Subgenus Pupilla Leach in Fleming, 1828

Pupilla (Pupilla) alaskensis Nekola & Coles in Nekola, Coles & Horsák, 2014
Pupilla (Pupilla) blandii Morse, 1865
Pupilla (Pupilla) hudsoniana Nekola & Coles in Nekola, Coles & Horsák, 2014
Pupilla (Pupilla) muscorum (Linnaeus, 1758) ♢ Introduced

Key to species of Pupilla in Canada

  • 1a Shell smooth or smoothish, with colabral striae very low or rounded — 2
  • 1b Shell with sharp, sometimes microscopically lamellar (thin-edged) colabral striae — 3
  • 2a Shell cylindrical-ovate. Apex tapered. Striae rather irregular, low, rounded; shell shiny to silky — P. muscorum
  • 2b Shell cylindrical. Apex domed. Striae irregular, very weak; shell shiny — P. blandii
  • 3a Colabral striae coarse, widely spaced, anastomosing (splitting and joining), sometimes minutely lamellar. Crest weak or absent. Callus absent —  P. alaskensis
  • 3b Colabral striae dense, thread-like. Crest weak to strong. Callus white —  P. hudsoniana

Genus Pupoides L. Pfeiffer, 1854

  • Pupoides L. Pfeiffer 1854: 192; type species by subsequent designation (Kobelt 1880 in 1876–1881): Bulimus nitidus L. Pfeiffer, 1830.

There are about 40 species of Pupoides in Asia, Australia, Africa, and the Americas (Schileyko 1998). One species occurs in Canada.

Etymology. Latin: pupa, a pupa + Greek: eidos, form or likeness; masculine.

Subgenus Pupoides L. Pfeiffer, 1854

Pupoides (Pupoides) albolabris (C.B. Adams, 1841)