Anguispira (Zonodiscus) kochi kochi (L. Pfeiffer, 1846)
Eastern Banded Tigersnail
- Helix solitaria Say 1821: 157, non Helix solitaria Poiret, 1800.
- Helix kochi L. Pfeiffer 1846: 127.
- Pyramidula solitaria albina B. Walker 1899: 22, nomen nudum.
- Pyramidula solitaria var. albina “W. G. Binney” B. Walker 1906: 492.
- Pyramidula solitaria mousensis Goodrich 1916: 531, nomen nudum.
- Pyramidula solitaria var. strontiana G. H. Clapp 1916: 532, pl. 32, figs 1–3.
- Pyramidula solitaria var. roseo-apicata G. H. Clapp 1916: 534, pl. 32, figs 4–6.
- Pyramidula solitaria var. mynesites G. H. Clapp 1916: 535, pl. 32, figs 7, 8.
- Anguispira (Zonodiscus) kochi f. aperta Pilsbry 1948: 593, fig. 325d.
Identification. Shell depressed-globose. Spire moderately elevated, conic, with sides slightly convex. Whorls ca 5½–6, convex. Periphery medial, convex. Last whorl descending in adults. Teleoconch with coarse, low colabral riblets on early whorls, weaker on later whorls, but strongly rugose in exceptionally large shells. Aperture rounded-lunate, slightly higher than wide, edentulous. Lip simple, thin but slightly thickened in adults. Umbilicus ca 1/5 of shell width. Shell matte, pale grey, or straw yellow, with darker spiral bands, one at periphery and one above. Shell to 38 mm wide (wider than high) but usually much smaller.
Habitat. In sandy and rocky woods. In leaf litter and under woody debris and vegetation.
Canadian range. Ontario: Point Pelee and a few small islands in western Lake Erie, including Pelee, West Sister, Middle Sister, East Sister, and North Harbour islands (Clapp 1916; Oughton 1948; Pilsbry 1948). Some of these island populations may no longer be extant, lost due to habitat destruction caused by an over-abundance of nesting cormorants. An unpublished record from along the Sydenham River in Lambton County needs verification.
Etymology. Likely named for one of the three German malacologists having the family name of Koch: Carl Jacob Wilhelm Ludwig von Koch (1827–1882); Friedrich Carl Ludwig Koch (1799–1852); or Friedrich Eduard Koch (1817–1894).
Remarks. Infraspecific names have been used, at various times, for different populations in different parts of the species’ range. Based on material collected from several small islands in both Canadian and American waters of western Lake Erie (Goodrich 1916), three local races were described as new species by G. H. Clapp (1916). Two of these four subspecies were recorded from the Canadian islands. The subspecies strontiana was identified from Middle Sister Island, and roseoapicata was described from North Harbour Island and additionally recorded from East Sister and Middle islands. Pilsbry (1948) recognized only strontiana and roseoapicata as subspecies. However, he added that these were “minor strains … established as pure races” (Pilsbry 1948: 593). Although Hubricht (1985) included both names as synonyms of A. kochi without comment, it is reasonable to follow his lead and consider all the eastern Canadian populations as A. kochi kochi.
Western populations of A. kochi are treated as a separate subspecies, A. kochi occidentalis (E. von Martens, 1882), following Pilsbry (1948). The date of publication of the name Helix kochi is usually given as 1845, but pages 123–136 of Part XIII of the Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London for 1845 were distributed in February 1846 (Sclater 1893). Turgeon et al. (1998, and subsequently Forsyth 2004) erred in using 1821, the publication year of Helix solitaria (a name invalid due to homonymy; Pilsbry 1948) as the publication year of A. kochi.
- Clapp GH (1916) Notes on the land-shells of the islands at the western end of Lake Erie and descriptions of new varieties. Annals of Carnegie Museum 21: 532–540, pls 32–36
- Forsyth RG (2004) Land Snails of British Columbia. Royal British Columbia Museum, Victoria, iv + 188 +  pp.
- Goodrich C (1916) A trip to islands in Lake Erie. Annals of Carnegie Museum 10: 527–531.
- Hubricht L (1985) The distributions of the native land mollusks of the eastern United States. Fieldiana, Zoology (New Series) 24: i–viii, 1–191.
- Oughton J (1948) A zoogeographical study of the land snails of Ontario. University of Toronto Studies, Biological Series 57: xii + 126 +  pp.
- Pfeiffer L (1846) Descriptions of fourteen new species of Helix, belonging to the collection of H. Cuming, Esq. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London for 1845 13: 123–133.
- Pilsbry HA (1948) Land Mollusca of North America (north of Mexico), 2(2). The Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, Monographs 3: i–xlvii + 521–1113 pp.
- Say T (1821) Descriptions of univalve shells of the United States. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 2: 149–179.
- Sclater PL (1893) List of the dates of delivery of the sheets of the ‘ Proceedings ‘ of the Zoological Society of London, from the commencement in 1830 to 1859 inclusive. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1893: 435–440.
- Turgeon DD, Quinn JFJ, Bogan AE, Coan EV, Hochberg FG, Lyons WG, Mikkelsen PM, Neves RJ, Roper CFE, Rosenberg G, Roth B, Scheltema A, Thompson FG, Vecchione M, Williams JD (1998) Common and scientific names of aquatic invertebrates from the United States and Canada: Mollusks, 2nd edition. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 26: i–ix, 1–526.
- Walker B (1899) The terrestrial Mollusca of Michigan. B. Walker, Detroit, 27 pp.
- Walker B (1906) An illustrated catalogue of the Mollusca of Michigan. Part I. Terrestrial Pulmonata (land snails). Michigan State Geological Report for 1905: 428–531,  pl., 1 folded chart.