My Publications, Reports and Websites


Forsyth, R.G., M.J. Oldham, & F.W. Schueler. [Submitted to Check List]. Mollusca, Gastropoda, Ellobiidae, Carychium minimum, and Ferussaciidae, Cecilioides acicula: distribution extension and first provincial records of two introduced land snails in Ontario, Canada.


Forsyth, R.G. 2008. First record of the European land snail Trochulus striolatus in British Columbia, Canada (Pulmonata: Hygromiidae). The Festivus 40 (6): 76-78.

The European terrestrial snail Trochulus striolatus (C. Pfeiffer, 1828), found at one locality in the city of Revelstoke, is newly reported from British Columbia, Canada. This record appears to be the first time that this species has been found in western North America. • PDF here [758 KB].

Forsyth, R.G. 2008. Checklist of terrestrial molluscs in British Columbia. E-Fauna BC. 8 pp.



Forsyth, R.G. 2006. Terrestrial snails and slugs of British Columbia. In: Klinkenberg, Brian (Editor). 2006. E-Fauna BC: Electronic Atlas of the Fauna of British Columbia. []. Lab for Advanced Spatial Analysis, Department of Geography, University of British Columbia, Vancouver.



Forsyth, R.G. 2005a. Terrestrial gastropods of the upper Fraser Basin of British Columbia. Living Landscapes, Royal British Columbia Museum, Victoria. 26 pp.

ABSTRACT: Information on the terrestrial gastropod fauna is compiled from new or recent field collections, museum records and literature for that part of British Columbia encompassing the basin of the Fraser River north of about 52° N. Recent fieldwork (2001) has added many new locality records for a region that has received little study and has significantly improved the region’s representation of terrestrial gastropods in the collection of the Royal British Columbia Museum. At least 28 species belonging to 18 genera are recorded from 83 localities. All but three species were previously unreported in the literature from this area of British Columbia. • URL: upperfraserbasin/ufb_snails/index.html.

Forsyth, R.G. 2005b. Terrestrial gastropods of the Peace River – northern Rockies of British Columbia. Living Landscapes, Royal British Columbia Museum, Victoria. 23 pp.

ABSTRACT: For the first time, information on the terrestrial mollusc fauna is compiled from new or recent field collections, museum records and literature for the Alberta and Liard plateaus, the northern Rocky Mountains, and much of the Cassiar and Omineca mountains of British Columbia, an area about 265,000 km2. Based on recent fieldwork (2003–2004) many new locality records are given for a poorly known region of the province. At least 23 species belonging to 13 families and 17 genera are recorded from 77 unique localities are documented in an annotated species list. Distribution of each species within the region is mapped, and locality data is tabulated in an appendix. • URL: prnr/prnr_snails/index.html.

Reise, H., J. M. C. Hutchinson, R. G. Forsyth, T. J. Forsyth. 2005. First records of the terrestrial slug Deroceras turcicum (Simroth, 1894) in Poland. Folia Malacologica 13(4): 177–179.

ABSTRACT: Deroceras turcicum (Simroth) is reported from six woodland sites around Wałbrzych in southwest Poland. This extension of the species’ range to Poland was expected given the number of reports from adjacent areas of the Czech Republic. We collate these reports as well as local records of Deroceras praecox Wiktor, 1966, which is found in similar habitats. We briefly discuss the difficulty of distinguishing D. turcicum from Deroceras reticulatum (O. F. Müll.), with which it may also co-occur. • PDF here [283 KB].


Forsyth, R.G. 2004a. Gastrocopta in British Columbia (Mollusca: Pulmonata: Vertiginidae). The Festivus 36(5): 53-55.

ABSTRACT: Gastrocopta holzingeri (Sterki, 1889), previously known in British Columbia, Canada, by unpublished 40-year-old museum records, was rediscovered in southeastern B.C. in 2002, and its habitat is described. References in the literature to G. pentodon (Say, 1822) in British Columbia are thought to be in error.

Forsyth, R.G. 2004b. Land Snails of British Columbia. Royal British Columbia Museum Handbook. Royal BC Museum, Victoria. iv, 188 pp., [8] pls. More informationAdditions and errata.


Forsyth, R.G. 2003a. Northern range extension for Assiminea translucens (Carpenter, 1864). The Festivus 35(2): 17–18.

Full text here.

Forsyth, R.G. 2003b. Key to slugs of British Columbia. Botanical Electronic News 320.

URL: botany-micro/ben/ben320.html.


COSEWIC. 2002. COSEWIC assessment and status report on the Warty Jumping-slug, Hemphillia glandulosa, in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. Ottawa. vi + 19 pp. [Status report prepared by R.G. Forsyth and K.E. Ovaska.]

URL: status/showDocument_e.cfm?id=218.

COSEWIC. 2002. COSEWIC assessment and status report on the Dromedary Jumping-slug, Hemphillia dromedarius, in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. Ottawa. vi + 21 pp. [Status report prepared by K.E. Ovaska and R.G. Forsyth.]

URL: status/showDocument_e.cfm?id=190.

COSEWIC. 2002. COSEWIC assessment and status report on the Oregon forestsnail, Allogona townsendiana, in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. Ottawa. vi + 20 pp .[Status report prepared by R.G. Forsyth and K.E. Ovaska.]

URL: status/showDocument_e.cfm?id=118.

COSEWIC. 2002. COSEWIC assessment and status report on the Puget Oregonian snail, Cryptomastix devia, in Canada. vi + 20 pp. [Status report prepared by K.E. Ovaska and R.G. Forsyth.]

URL: status/showDocument_e.cfm?id=216.


Forsyth, R.G. 2001a. Re-identification of slugs from seabird nesting burrows off the west coast of Vancouver Island. The Festivus 33(1): 9–10.

ABSTRACT: Two species of terrestrial slugs were collected from driftwood and the nesting burrows of Leach's storm­petrels, Oceanodroma leucorhoa (Vieillot, 1818), on a small island off the west coast of Vancouver Island in the late 1960s. The species were identified and published as Ariolimax columbianus (Gould, 1851) and Deroceras reticulatum (Milller, 1774). However, based on extemal morphology and anatomy of preserved material and remarks on the pigmentation of the living animal, the record is re-identified as Prophysaon foliolatum (Gould, 1851). Although incorrectly determined, the original observations of P. foliolatum from storm-petrel burrows are noteworthy because of the unusual slug – bird association and habitat. • Full text here.

Forsyth, R.G. 2001b. A note on the distribution of Striatura pugetensis in British Columbia. The Festivus 33(5): 57–58.

Forsyth, R.G. 2001c. First records of the European land slug Lehmannia valentiana in British Columbia, Canada. The Festivus 33(7): 75–78.

ABSTRACT: The synanthropic slug, Lehmannia valentiana (Férussac, 1821), is recorded in British Columbia for the first time. The identification of an adult specimen from Victoria, Vancouver Island, is confirmed by dissection. Additional records, based on undissected immature specimens, photographs and sightings, are known from nearby sites on southern Vancouver Island and from an island in the Strait of Georgia. • Full text here.

Forsyth, R.G., and T. Forsyth. 2001. A note on Mercenaria mercenaria in British Columbia. The Festivus 33(8): 85.

Forsyth, R.G., J.M.C. Hutchinson, and H. Reise. 2001. Aegopinella nitidula (Draparnaud, 1805) (Gastropoda: Zonitidae) in British Columbia — first confirmed North American record. American Malacological Bulletin 16(1/2): 65–69.

ABSTRACT: The European land snail, Aegopinella nitidula (Draparnaud, 1805), is reported for the first time from British Columbia, from three sites in the city of Vancouver. These new records are the only documentation of the species in North America, except for two old records that are probably erroneous and have been ignored in recent literature. Comparisons are made between A. nitidula and similar native and introduced species. Information about its ecology in Europe is summarized.

Forsyth, R.G. 2001d. New records for land snails from the mountains of northwestern British Columbia. The Canadian Field-Naturalist 115(2): 223-228.

ABSTRACT: Terrestrial gastropod faunas of vast areas of northern and central British Columbia are extremely poorly known. I record new distributional records of Punctum randolphii (Dall, 1895), Microphysula cookei (Pilsbry, 1922), Pristiloma arcticum (Lehnert, 1884), Vertigo columbiana (Pilsbry & Vanatta, 1900) and other land snails from the Babine and Bulkley Ranges, Nechako Plateau, and Boundary Range of northwestern British Columbia. Records of Punctum randolphii and Vertigo columbiana are the first higher elevation localities in British Columbia. Pristiloma arcticum was collected from one site in the Babine Mountains and is newly recorded from the province. Microphysula cookei, previously known only from southern British Columbia and adjacent Washington, occurs north to the Babine and Hazelton Ranges, Nechako Plateau, and Boundary Range. While sharing many species in common, the mountain snail fauna differed from that of the adjacent Bulkley Valley by the inclusion of “coastal” and montane elements. Absent from the drier valley floor, Punctum randolphii, Microphysula cookei, Vertigo columbiana and Vespericola columbianus are considered coastal species whose distributions extend far inland along climatically favourable corridors.


Forsyth, R.G. 2000. The land snail Cryptomastix germana (Gastropoda: Polygyridae) in the Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia: a range extension north from Vancouver Island. The Canadian Field-Naturalist 114(2): 316-317.

ABSTRACT: The coastal land snail Cryptomastix germana, not previously known to occur north of Vancouver Island, is reported from the Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia.

Reise, H., J.M.C. Hutchinson, R.G. Forsyth, and T.J. Forsyth. 2000. The ecology and rapid spread of the terrestrial slug Boettgerilla pallens in Europe with reference to its recent discovery in North America. The Veliger 43(4): 313-318.

ABSTRACT. The terrestrial slug Boettgerilla pallens Simroth, 1912, is reported from two sites on Vancouver Island, British Columbia, the first records for this Palaearctic species in America. This paper describes how to recognize the species, and summarizes European studies of its ecology. It is unusually wormlike in appearance, lives mostly underground, and occurs in a very wide range of habitats. This century the species has spread remarkably far and fast across Europe from the Caucasus. This is demonstrated by a table of first occurrences in each country, and by three case studies of spread within Great Britain, Belgium, and north-west Austria. We predict that it will spread rapidly in North America, and may already occur more widely, but there is no evidence that it will become an important pest. • PDF here [1.4 MB].


Forsyth, R.G. 1999a. Lindeman Lake, British Columbia, type locality of Zonitoides randolphi Pilsbry. The Veliger 42(3): 286.

Forsyth, R.G. 1999b. Terrestrial gastropods of the Columbia Basin, British Columbia. Living Landscapes, Royal British Columbia Museum, Victoria. Available in HTML and PDF format.

Update here (July 28, 2006). • URL: cbasin/molluscs/contents.html.

Forsyth, R.G. 1999c. Distributions of nine new or little-known exotic land snails in British Columbia. The Canadian Field-Naturalist 113(4): 559–568.

ABSTRACT: Introduced species of terrestrial molluscs of British Columbia were collected between 1989 and 1998. New locality records and expanded distributions are documented for seven introduced land snails: Lauria cylindracea (Chrysalis Snail), Vallonia pulchella (Lovely Vallonia), Oxychilus alliarius (Garlic Glass-snail), O. cellarius (Cellar Glass-snail), O. draparnaudi (Dark-bodied Glass-snail), Cepaea nemoralis (Grovesnail) and Helix aspersa (Brown Gardensnail). Two other species, Vallonia excentrica (Iroquois Vallonia), and Vitrea contracta (Contracted Glass-snail) are reported from British Columbia for the first time. About 25% of the terrestrial molluse species in the province are exotic. Mechanisms of introduction include transport on nursery plants and on salvaged bricks. Potential impacts on native fauna include predation by Oxychilus.