By Frederick W. Schueler & Robert Forsyth
F. Wayne Grimm (21 June 1941 – 8 June 2005) was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. His mother was Eugenia Stanley Grimm of West Virginia, and his father was Frank Gustav Grimm of Baltimore, Maryland. Wayne grew up in Baltimore and later attended Michigan State University on a Westinghouse Scholarship for Science. In 1954, he began his studies of terrestrial molluscs, mentored by Leslie Hubricht.
“Finding snails in secret places engages all of one’s faculties,” Wayne once wrote, “especially when one is committed to understanding them. Knowing the snails of an area means that one knows the whole history and general ecology.”
In the early 1970s Wayne immigrated to Canada and was employed in the design and display department of the National Museum of Canada (now Canadian Museum of Nature) in Ottawa. Most of his collection — up to about 1975 — was donated to the museum and forms comprises a significant part of the terrestrial gastropod holdings in that institution.
At some point Wayne lost interest in molluscs and took up other interests. He returned to his malacological studies around 1990, concentrating on the snails and insects of the eastern Ontario limestone alvars near his home. He was also contracted to survey alvars around the Great Lakes basin and summarized his knowledge of the fauna in his report, “Terrestrial Molluscs of the Mixedwood Plains Ecozone” (1996).
Wayne was Curator of Invertebrates at the now-defunct Eastern Ontario Biodiversity Museum (EOBM) from 1999 to his death. It was said that he had begun assembling data for a monographic revision of the fauna of Canada, but his progress was minimal and his later collections chaotic. Regardless, his death has left a major gap in Canadian malacology because, while his field experience was continental (especially in his earlier years) and his knowledge was encyclopedic, Wayne had published little in his later years. Wayne’s papers and most of his recent collections were moved to the Bishops Mills Natural History Centre for storage and curation when the EOBM closed shortly before his death. These collections are now being transferred permanently to the Canadian Museum of Nature, where they will join his earlier collection.
Wayne published approximately 25 zoological papers. Most of these were on molluscs, and appeared between 1959 to 1976 in The Nautilus, Bulletin of American Malacological Union, The Canadian Field-Naturalist, several other journals, and reports.
Malacological Publications of F. Wayne Grimm
Grimm, W. 1959a. Land snails of Carroll County, Maryland. The Nautilus 72 (4): 122–127.
Grimm, F. W. 1959b. Land snails from Maryland and Virginia. The Nautilus 73 (1): 21–22.
Grimm, F. W. 1960. Two new succineids from Maryland, with notes on Catinella vermeta. The Nautilus 74 (1): 8–15. link
Grimm, F. W. 1961. Pallifera fosteri, with P. megaphallica, new. The Nautilus 74 (3): 102–105. link
Grimm, F. W. 1961. Land snails of the Delamarva Peninsula. Annual Report, American Malacological Union : 3–4.
Grimm, F. W. 1961. Land snails from the upper Patuxent estuary margin (Maryland). The Nautilus 74 (3): 106–109.
Grimm, F. W. 1961. Land snails from Maryland coastal plain. The Nautilus 74 (4): 160–161.
Grimm, F. W. 1963. Triodopsis fosteri in Ohio. The Nautilus 77 (2): 72.
Grimm, F. W. 1964a. Striatura meridionalis in Michigan. The Nautilus 77 (3): 108.
Grimm, F. W. 1964b. Otala lactea in Virginia, Texas, and California. The Nautilus 77 (3): 108–109. [Note: In volume 77, there are two pages numbered 109; this is page 109 in issue number 3, not page 109 in number 4.]
Grimm, F. W. 1966. Speciation in the Triodopsis fallax complex (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Pulmonata). Journal of the Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society, North Carolina Academy of Sciences Proceedings and Abstracts 82 (2): 101–102 [NOT SEEN - check volume, issue number].
Grimm, F. W. 1967. New species of Helicodiscus in Virginia. The Nautilus 80 (4): 119–121. link
Grimm, F. W. 1968. A note on Catinella oklahomarum. The Nautilus 81 (3): 84–85. link
Grimm, F. W. 1971. Annotated checklist of the land snails of Maryland and the District of Columbia. Sterkia 41: 51–75.
Grimm, F. W. 1971. Two new Stenotrema, with notes on S. hirsutum and S. barbatum. The Nautilus 85 (1): 12–17. link
Grimm, F. W. 1974. Speciation within the Triodopsis fallax group (Pulmonata: Polygyridae) — a preliminary report. Bulletin of the American Malacological Union Inc, 1974: 23–29.
Grimm, F. Wayne. 1974. Techniques for Rearing Land Snails. Pp. 102–105 in: M. K. Jacobson (ed.), How to Study & Collect Shells. American Malacological Union, Wrightsville Beach, N.C.pp 102–105.
Grimm, F. W., and G. B. Wiggins. 1974. Colonies of the European snail Helicella obvia (Hartmann) in Ontario. The Canadian Field-Naturalist 88 (4): 421–428.
Grimm, F. W. 1975. A review of Succinea wilsoni [sic] a coastal marsh snail of eastern North America. The Nautilus 89 (2): 39–43.
Grimm F. W. 1975. A Preliminary Survey of the Molluscan Fauna of Nine Lakes in Gatineau Park, Quebec. The Canadian Field-Naturalist 89 (4): 383–388.
Grimm, F. W. 1976. The occurrence of two European succineids, Succinea oblong [sic] and Succinea putris, in North America. Abstracts from the Forty Second Annual Meeting, Columbus, Ohio, 2–6 August 1976. Bulletin of the American Malacological Union, 1976: 53.
Grimm, F.W. 1981. A review of the Chittenango ovate amber snail Succinea chittenangoensis, Pilsbry 1908 — a Pleistocene relict now greatly restricted in distribution. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Endangered Species Unit (Sept. 1981). 23 p. Contract report; with supplement, pp. 1A–9A.
Oldham, M. J., and F. W. Grimm. 1996. NHIC fieldwork in Essex County documents new mollusc species for Ontario. Ontario Natural Heritage Information Centre Newsletter 3(1): unpaginated. Available online:
http://nhic.mnr.gov.on.ca/ MNR/ nhic/ documents/ spring1996/ spring96.html#MOLLUSC. Accessed on 28 June 2009. [No longer available online].
Grimm, F. W. 1996. Molluscs of the Alvar Arc and the Niagara Cuesta Uplands and Barren Zones. pp. 112–124: in Carly, S, Whitelaw, G., Powell, S. (eds.), Proceedings of the Leading Edge ‘95 Conference, Collingwood, Ontario, Canada, 25–27 October 1995. Ecosystem Planning Series, Ontario Ministry of Environment and Energy.
Grimm, F. W. 1996. Terrestrial molluscs. In: I. M. Smith (ed.), Assessment of species diversity in the mixedwood plains ecosystem. EMAN (Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Network). CDROM; also available online at
http:// www.naturewatch.ca/ MixedWood/ landsnai/. Accessed on 28 June 2009. [No longer available online].
Hotopp, K., T. A. Pearce, and F. W. Grimm. 2003. Land snails of selected Pennsylvania natural areas. Report to Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, supported by DCNR Grant ME#380141. 44 pp.
Lauriol, B., E. Deschamps, L. Carrier, W. Grimm, and B. Talon. 2003. Cave infill and associated biotic remains as indicators of Holocene environment in Gatineau Park (Quebec, Canada). Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 40 (6): 789–803.
Lauriol, B., Y. Cabana, J. Cinq-Mars, M.-A. Geurts, and F. W. Grimm. 2002. Cliff-top eolian deposits and associated molluscan assemblages as indicators of Late Pleistocene and Holocene environments in Beringia. Quaternary International 87 (1): 59–79.
New taxa described by F. W. Grimm*
burringtoni, Stenotrema, Grimm 1971: 14, fig. D. Type locality: Virginia: Highland Co.: limestone rubble 3.1 miles south-southwest of Mustoe on U.S.-220. Holotype: National Museum of Canada (NMC) 61545. Paratypes: NMC 61546; Delaware Museum of Natural History 41544. — A synonym of Stenotrema hirsutum (Say, 1817) according to Hubricht (1974), but retained as a separate species by Turgeon et al. (1998).
diadema, Helicodiscus, Grimm 1967: 119; pl. 8 (p. 123), fig. A-E [holotype], D-E [paratypes]. Type locality: Virginia: Rockbridge Co.: thinly wooded (Robinia) limestone hillside near quarry on U.S.-220, 7.6 mi. northeast of Covington city limit and 1.8 mi. southwest of Bath Co. line. Holotype: United States National Museum (USNM) 683586. Paratypes USNM 683587, American Museum of Natural History 128744, Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 310365, Museum of Comparative Zoology (Harvard University) 256812, University of Michigan Museum of Zoology 228931, collection of Leslie Hubricht (35749) [now in Field Museum of Natural History], “collection of the author (1640) [likely now in Canadian Museum of Nature] — Accepted as a valid species by Hubricht (1985).
hubrichti, Catinella, Grimm 1960: 9, fig. 1A-E; pl. 1, F. Type locality: Near dump along Pocomoke River, w.s.w. edge of Snow Hill, Worcester Co., Md. Among wet leaves and cypress needles on mud near small creek (Grimm, Dec. 27, 1959). Holotype: University of Michigan Museum of Zoology (UMMZ) 2000684. Paratypes UMMZ 2000685. — Accepted as a valid species by Hubricht (1985) and Turgeon et al. (1998).
megaphallica, Pallifera (Pancalyptus), Grimm 1961: 104, fig. B [not A as stated]. Type locality: Maryland, Worcester Co.: among wet leaves and cypress needles near small creek, dump along Pocomoke River, west-south-west edge of Snow Hill. Holotype: Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia (ANSP) 251838. Paratypes: ANSP 251839-40; “other paratypes in the author’s collection” [likely now in Canadian Museum of Nature]. — A synonym of Pallifera fosteri F.C. Baker, 1939 according to Hubricht (1974); however, Turgeon et al. (1998) retained this taxon as a valid species..
pinicola, Catinella, Grimm 1960: 11, fig. 1 F-K; pl. 1, C-E. Type locality: Near dump along Pocomoke River, w.s.w. edge of Snow Hill, Worcester Co., Md. Under debris in open, loblolly pine woods, associated wth prickly pear, Smilax, honeysuckle, etc. (Grimm, Dec. 27, 1959). Holotype: UMMZ 2000686. Paratypes: UMMZ 200687. — Synonym of Catinella oklahomarum (Webb, 1953) (Grimm 1968, Hubricht 1985).
simile, Stenotrema, Grimm 1971: 12, fig. A. Type locality: Maryland: Garrett Co.: leaf mould at base of steep slope near sharp bend of Bear Creek, 2.9 miles west of jct. U.S.-219 and Md.-42 (F. W. and G. F. Grimm, G. B. Morris, coll.). Holotype: National Museum of Canada (NMC) 61543. Paratypes: NMC 61544. — Accepted as a valid species by Hubricht (1985) and Turgeon et al. (1998).
*In his 1996 report on the terrestrial molluscs of the Mixedwood Plains Ecosystem, Wayne Grimm that there were undescribed “new” species belonging to the genera Catinella, Cochlicopa, Columella, Discus, Glyphyalinia, Neohelix, Novisuccinea, Oxyloma, Pallifera, Succinea, Vertigo, andWebbhelix. None of these taxa, however, were ever published.
Additional References Cited
Hubricht, L. 1974. A review of some land snails of the eastern United States. Malacological Review 7 (1): 33–34.
Hubricht, L. 1985. The distributions of the native land mollusks of the eastern United States. Fieldiana, Zoology, n.s. 24: viii + 191 p.
Turgeon, D.D., J.F. Quinn, A.E. Bogan, E.V. Coan, F.G. Hochberg, W.G. Lyons, P.M. Mikkelsen, R.J. Neves, C.F.E. Roper, G. Rosenberg, B. Roth, A. Scheltema, F.G. Thompson, M. Vecchione, and J.D. Williams. 1998. Common and Scientific Names of Aquatic Invertebrates from the United States and Canada: Mollusks. 2nd edition. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 26: x + 526 p.